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GLOSSARY (under construction)

The following is a list of words and phrases used in the oil and gas production industry. Some of the words in the list are considered slang -others common - and their usage as applied to the production of oil and gas often differs from normal usage. The definitions may vary from work area to work area. The list is not to be considered all inclusive, nor as covering all the variations in word meaning.

~ A ~

Abandon - To cease efforts to produce oil or gas from a well , and to plug a depleted formation and salvage all material and equipment.

Absorption - To soak up as a sponge takes water.

Acidizing - The treatment of formations with hydrochloric or other type acids in order to increase production or injection.

Adsorption -The attraction exhibited by the surface of a solid for a liquid or a gas when they are in contact.

API - Abbreviation for American Petroleum Institute

API Gravity - The standard adopted by API for measuring the density of a liquid, expressed in degrees.

Associated Gas - Natural gas which is in contact with crude oil in the reservoir.

Aquifer - A water-bearing rock strata. In a water-drive field the aquifer is the water zone of the reservoir underlying the oil zone.

Annular Space - The space around a pipe (casing or tubing) suspended in a wellbore is often termed the ANNULUS, and its outer wall may be either the wall of the borehole or the casing.

Automation -The automatic, self regulating control of equipment, systems, or processes

~ B ~

Back Off - To unscrew one threaded piece (such as a section of pipe) from another.

Back Pressure - The pressure resulting from restriction of full natural flow of oil or gas.

Back Up - To hold one section of an object, such as a pipe or a nut, while another is being screwed into or out of it. A BACK UP WRENCH refers to any wrench being used to hold the pipe or bolt.

Bad Oil - Oil not acceptable for delivery to the pipeline purchaser because of too high BS&W; oil requiring additional treating.

Baffles - Plates or obstructions built into a tank or other vessel to change the direction of fluid flow.

Ball and Seat - Parts of the valves in a plunger type oil well pump.

Basic Sediment and Water (BS&W) -The water and other extraneous material present in crude oil.

Batch - A definite amount of oil, mud, chemicals, cement, or other material in a treatment or operation.

Battery (Tank Battery) - The production handling equipment on the lease.

B/D - The abbreviation for barrels per day. Other related abbreviations are: BPD for barrels per day; BOPD for barrels of oil per day; BWPD for barrels of water per day; BLPD for barrels a of liquid per day

Beam - The walking beam of a pumping unit.

Beam Well - A well whose fluid is being lifted by rods and pump actuated by a beam pump rig unit.

Bean - A type of choke used to regulate the flow of fluid from a well. Different sizes of beans are used for different producing rates.

Bell Hole - A bell-shaped hole dug beneath a pipeline to provide room for use of tools by workers,

Blank liner - A liner without perforations or slots,

Blank Off - To close off by sealing or plugging.

Bleed - To drain off liquid or gas, generally slowly, through a valve called a bleeder. To BLEED DOWN, or BLEED OFF, means to slowly release the pressure of a well or of pressurized equipment.

Bleeder Valve - A small valve on a pipeline, pump, or tank from which samples are drawn or to vent air or oil; sample valve.

Blind - To close a line to prevent flow.

Blind Flange - (Also a BLANK FLANGE) - A solid disc used to dead end a companion flange.

Blowout - An uncontrolled flow of gas, oil or other fluids from a well.

Blowout Preventer (BOP) - The equipment installed at the wellhead for the purpose of controlling rig pressures in the annular space between the casing and drill pipe (or tubing) during drilling, completion and certain workover operations.

Boilerhouse - To make up or fake a report without actually doing the work.

Bonnet - The part of a valve that packs off and encloses the valve stem.

Boot - A tall section of large-size pipe used as a surge column on a vessel.

Bottom-Hole - The lowest or deepest part of a well.

Bottom Water - Water occurring below the oil and gas in a production formation

Bowl - A device that fits in the rotary table or wellhead to hold the wedges or slips that support a string of drill pipe casing or tubing while tripping in or out of the hole

Break Out - To unscrew one section of pipe from another section

Brine - Water that has a large quantity of salt, especially sodium chloride, dissolved in it. Salt water.

Bring In A Well - To complete a well and put it on production.

BTU (British Thermal Unit) - A measure of the heating value of a fuel .

Buck Up - To tighten a threaded connection.

Bump A Well (Bump Down) -To lower a sucker-rod string on a pumping unit so that the pump hits bottom on the downstroke.

~ P ~

Permeability - refers to the degree of connectivity of spaces in a solid through which a liquid can travel.  Highly permeable means a liquid can pass through relatively easily. Low pereable material such as some rock may trap oil in formations deep underground.

Porosity - refers to the size and/or number of spaces in a solid through which a liquid can travel.  Gravel is more porous than sand which in turn is more porous than most rock.

~ S ~

Seismogram - a record produced by a seismographic survey

Seismograph - a device that records vibrations from the earth or which records shock waves set off by explosions in shot holes and picked up by geophones.

Seismographic survey - geophysical information on subsurface rock formations gathered by means of a seismograph.  The investigation of underground strata by recording and analyzing shock waves artificially produced and reflected from subsurface bodies of rock.

Seismometer - a device for receiving and recording shock waves set off by an explosion and reflected by underground rock formations.

Shot charge - the explosive charge put in a seismic shot hole.

Shot hole - a small diameter hole, usually drilled with a portable truck mounted drill, for planting explosive charges sued in seismic operations.

Shot point - the shot hole - the point at which the detonation is during a seismographic survey